Overview of Solid Waste Management in Pakistan 

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Pakistan, like many other nations, is facing an environmental challenge. The burgeoning population and the absence of effective environmental policy are leading to increasing levels of pollution. The issue of sustainable development has been largely left unaddressed in political discourse. This lack of attention given to sustainable development in policy-making has exacerbated the existing environmental situation. Presently, solid waste collection in Pakistan stands at 50 per cent of the total waste generated. For cities to be classified as sustainable cities, the figure should be at least 75 per cent. The mode of disposal of waste is also primarily dumping along the flood plains, further causing damage to the environment. 

Graana.com brings you an overview of the solid waste management mechanism and policy in Pakistan. 


International Practices in Waste Management

Globally countries produce about 4 billion tons of waste of which 1.2 billion tons is municipal waste. Of this 4 billion ton of waste, only 1 billion ton is utilised through various means. 600 million tons of waste is recycled; 5 million tons of plastics, 405 million tons of ferrous scrap, 25 million tons of non-ferrous scrap and 170 million tons of paper. Moreover, 200 million tons of waste is utilised for energy generation.  

The waste produced is also dealt with through multiple means like recycling, dumping and burning. Recycling is the ideal way of dealing with solid waste management as it is the most environmentally friendly option. Presently, Europe recycles 41 per cent of its municipal waste while the United States of America only recycles 32 per cent of its waste. 

Recognising the need to adopt environmentally conducive practices, countries have started investing in technologies that not only manage waste efficiently but are also cost-effective. For example, China is investing US$ 6.3 billion in a move to jump its recycling capacity to 30 per cent by 2030. Similarly, other countries have also started investing in green technologies to reduce waste and provide sustainable solutions for the future. Only through a collective and cohesive strategy, can the environment be protected and preserved for future generations. 


Waste Generation Trend in Pakistan

Pakistan produces copious amounts of waste every year and employs mainly three ways of disposing of solid waste: landfill, size reduction and screening. As per various studies, urban areas of Pakistan generate 54,888 tons of solid waste daily of which only 60 per cent is collected by municipal authorities. 30 to 50 per cent of the waste in most cities is not collected at all. 

Similarly, various healthcare facilities alone produce 250,000 tons of medical waste every year. Some facilities resort to burning the medical waste which in turn produces toxic gases. Other facilities dump these waste materials in open grounds which lead to the spread of diseases. 

The Engineering Planning Management and Consultant (EPMC) conducted a study in 1996 titled “Data Collection for Preparation of National Study on Privatization of Solid Waste Management in Eight Selected Cities of Pakistan”. The study revealed the average solid waste produced varied from 0.283 kg/capita/day to 0.613 kg/capita/day or from 1.896 kg/house/day to 4.29 kg/house/day in the given cities. As per estimated projections, Pakistan is to produce 71,018 tons per day or 25.921 m tons per year of solid waste materials. 


Solid Waste Composition in Pakistan

Solid waste in Pakistan is primarily composed of metal, paper, plastic, rubber, animal waste, food waste, grass, leaves, textile waste, glass, bones, stones etc. 

According to EPMC estimates of 1996, the typical composition of solid waste in major cities of Pakistan showed that food waste contributed 8.4% to 21% of solid waste, leaves and grass contributed 10.2% to 15.6%, fines contributed 29.7% to 47.5% and recyclables contributed 13.6% to 23.55% of waste materials.  

Composition %
Food Waste 8.4 % – 21 %
Leaves, Grass, Straw, Fodder 10.2 % – 15.6 %
Fines 29.7 % – 47.5 %
Recyclables 13.6 % – 23.55 %


The physical composition of the waste (% weight) in major cities is shown below: 

Cities Faisalabad Karachi Hyderabad Peshawar Quetta
Plastic and Rubber 4.8 6.4 3.6 3.7 8.2
Metals 0.2 0.75 0.75 0.3 0.2
Paper 2.1 4.1 2.4 2.1 2.2
Cardboard 1.5 2.4 1.5 1.9 1.3
Rags 5.2 8.4 4.7 4.3 5.1
Glass 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.5
Bones 2.9 3 2 1.7 2
Food Waste 17.2 21 20 13.8 14.3
Animal Waste 0.8 3 5.8 7.5 1.7
Leaves, Grass, etc. 15.6 14 13.5 13.6 10.2
Wood 0.7 2.25 2.25 0.6 1.5
Fines 43 29.7 38.9 42 44
Stones 4.6 3.5 3 7.3 7.8


Solid Waste Management Policy in Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan has enacted the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act in 1997. Section 11 of this act states that “ no person shall discharge or emit or allow the discharge or emission of any effluent or waste or air pollutant or noise in an amount, concentration or level which is more than the National Environmental Quality Standards…”. This act also provides the framework and guidelines to establish Environmental Protection Agencies (EPAs) at the federal and provincial level to address the disposal of solid waste. 


Existing legislation

The current rules and legislation related to solid waste management in Pakistan include: 

  • Section 11 of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 
  • Draft Hazardous Substances Rules 1999
  • Islamabad Capital Territory By-Laws, 1968 by Capital Development Authority Islamabad 
  • Section 132 of the Cantonment Act 1924  
  • National Environmental Quality Standard 2000 
  • Provisions in Local Government Ordinance 2001 
  • Lahore Solid Waste Management By-Laws 2005 
  • Public-Private Partnership (PPP) policy 2007 
  • Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Act 2010 


Required Legislation

The guidelines and rules needed for solid waste management in Pakistan include: 

  • Basic rules related to recycling and repurposing 
  • Waste management rules
  • Development of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI)
  • Adoption Life Cycle assessment approaches
  • Establishment of eco-labelling guidelines
  • Establishment of guidelines for environmentally sound waste collection and disposal
  • Establishment of eco-friendly landfill sites 

National Museum of Pakistan | Graana.com Blog

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National museum of Pakistan established on 17th April in the year 1950 in Frere Hall. The Victoria Museum in Karachi was replaced with the National Museum of Pakistan. In the year 1865, Frere Hall was built as a tribute to the Commissioner of Sindh, Sir Bartle Frere during the 19th century. An Advisory Council was later formed in the year 1950 when the museum was inaugurated.

The Government of Pakistan tasked the Advisory Council to enrich the museum by purchasing new antiquities, works of art and collections. The objective of establishing the National Museum was to assemble, preserve, exhibit, and study the records of the cultural history of Pakistan. The idea was to showcase the best of Pakistan and its people while also promoting and creating awareness of the personality of the people of Pakistan. The premises of the museum were shifted to Burns Garden, Dr. Zia-ud-din Ahmed Road, in the year 1970 where it was inaugurated by the then-president of Pakistan, General Mohammad Yahya Khan.

The national museum is the biggest museum of Pakistan, carrying within it some of the oldest artefacts ever excavated in Pakistan.

It boasts an incredible collection of 58,000 old coins (dating back to 74 Al-Hijra and 550 AD) and well-preserved sculptures. Every year, the National Museum hosts numerous exhibitions on National days and other various occasions. Around 70,000 books and publications of the Archeology and Museums Department were shifted to the National Museum for the public.

The main highlights of the museum galleries include the Gandhara civilization sculptures, calligraphy, miniature paintings, Islamic art, old coins, and rare manuscripts of the Quran. Out of the 300 copies of Quran that the museum holds, 52 are rare handwritten manuscripts. Some of the intricately written manuscripts are in early Kufic and Bahr Arabic scripts. These manuscripts are very popular among the museum visitors. Additional amenities include an auditorium with a capacity of 250 people, eleven galleries covering six stories, committee room and a laboratory.

What really distinguishes the National Museum from all other museums in Pakistan is the fact that it was established after the partition era as a distinct museum for Pakistan to highlight the history of the country and its people as well as to carry within its oldest artefacts excavated in the country. However, most of these artefacts collected by the British were taken to the United Kingdom while some of them were given to the National Museum of Pakistan.

Karachi is known to several well-kept museums in Pakistan. But the National Museum each year holds a lot of exhibitions on National Days and other important occasions and festivals, hosting visitors from all over the country.

In the beginning the museum only had four galleries but with time it expanded, giving rise to eleven more galleries that covers:

Each gallery shows and represents a period from Pakistan’s history ranging from the ancient times to the birth of Pakistan. Ethnographic studies are scripted on the inside and outside of the museum building. The studies are either found by accident like the Buddhist manuscripts found in the region of Gilgit Baltistan and Egyptian statues from the quintennial Taxila; or bought from various countries all over the world.

The museum also shows portraits or perhaps a glimpse from the lives of people of Indus Valley and Gandhara Civilization, portraying their creativity and aesthetic sense. These are adjacent to the archival sources of the Pakistan Movement. Household objects, pottery, needles, awls, axes, saws, sickles, knives, locks, and fishing hooks from the Indus valley are encased in a glass window next to it. At that time, these objects were buried into the graves of their owners as a custom and tradition of burial.

The museum is not focused on conventional history but instead is a treasure box of different segments of history showcasing artefacts, paintings, statues, and objects from all eras. It gives a rich experience, exporting you to the time before you, if you need a view from the past then this place is your ultimate adventure.

The galleries of the Museum are taken care by three ushers/curators as well as seven assistants.

The ancient statues will be worth your time and a long glance. The oldest relics are from the cities of Mehergarh and Nowshera which are more than 10,000 years old.

Moving forward with the objects that were excavated from the caves of Islamabad are about a million years old.

The Gandhara Gallery is a site to behold with its statues of Mauryan emperors. The northern side of the museum has the dioramic panels depicting the diagrams of Buddha’s life (birth to death).The southern side has specimens of stucco and terracotta figures representing Buddhist monasteries.

The Ethnological Gallery has life size statues of different ethnicities living in the four provinces of modern-day Pakistan.

The next fascinating gallery is the Indus Valley Civilization gallery showcasing rare collections of sculptures and relics, which includes the famous King-Priest.

All the gold jewelry, pottery designs and fabrics such as the ajrak print, portrayed at the museum are still a huge tradition in today’s society.

A whole gallery has been given to showcase the Pakistan Movement along with features, descriptions and belongings of the people who were part of it. These include:

  • Quaid-e-Azam’s pens, cuffs, cars, sword

  • Allama-Iqbal’s personal chair

  • Liaquat Ali Khan’s walking stick

A window in the museum also shows rare pictures of some of the politicians youth, and news archive from the Independence struggle. Besides this, there are over 50,000 rare pictures of Pakistan, taken while the country was still being established in 1950 and 1960.

From 1950 to 2011, the government of Pakistan was responsible for its maintenance and management. After the 18th Amendment, its portfolio was handed over to the Sindh Government, along with the administration of the Wazir Mansion Museum and Quaid-i-Azam house. New facilities are still being introduced in the museum such as the newly built scholar’s house for research and discussion, an arts and crafts center for art-holics, and four new galleries.

Galleries in the museum are set up in chronological order (from stone age to the birth of Pakistan) and the sequence follows as following:

  • Prehistoric

  • Proto Historic

  • Late Harappa

  • Gandhara Gallery

  • Hindu Gallery

  • Quran Gallery

  • Coins Gallery

  • Freedom Movement Gallery

  • Ethnology Gallery

  • Islamic Gallery

  • Islamic Arts and Crafts

  • Other Facilities

General Information:

  • Entry to the Museums is through the main gate.

  • Entrance fee is rupees 20 for adults and rupees 10 for children (6-12 years).

  • Entrance fee for foreigner: Rs.300/-

  • Visit hours for Summer are: 8:00 am to 7:00 pm, Winter: 9:00 am to 6:00 pm.

The address of the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi is located on Dr. Zia-ud-din Ahmed Road, close to the Art Council.

The museum shifted to a new exquisite and rich neighborhood of history and architecture. Residing along the beautiful NED university’s old campus, parallel to Sindh Muslim Law College.

The architect of the new building was designed by an Italian architect in the late 1960s and inaugurated by Yahya Khan.

If you liked this article, tell us about your experience at the prestigious national museum of Pakistan in the comments section.

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Potential of Blockchain Technology in Real Estate of Pakistan

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Pakistan’s real estate sector has a large contribution to its economic growth. Investments in real estate are often considered more rewarding as people associate the ownership of land and property with many positive socioeconomic indicators of wealth. However, buying and selling property has its challenges in Pakistan, ranging from incomplete information to problems in land acquisition, transparency, and fraud schemes. Blockchain technology has existed for more than a decade, but its understanding has only recently gained momentum among real estate organisations. As the technology is based on a secure and decentralised system that can be used for managing transactions, property details, and customer profiles, there is a massive potential for it to bring positive change in the real estate sector. The process of buying and selling property involves several steps, and blockchain can be used to track and authenticate each step along the line. Therefore, the potential of blockchain technology in the real estate of Pakistan is encouraging and is expected to bring a revolution in the sector.

The Iqbal Institute of Policy Studies (IIPS) explores and discusses the potential of ‘Blockchain Technology’ in the real estate sector of Pakistan.


Challenges of Real Estate in Pakistan

It is no doubt that real estate is a challenging field for those who are unaware of all the laws and regulations regarding the sale and purchase of any property. Not only that, but multiple documents are required in the process, along with the help of several third parties such as real estate agents, brokers, and investment advisers. Market evaluation and investment strategies are areas that are only accessible to real estate professionals, and therefore, a strong level of trust is required in most cases. That has often led to fraud and manipulation of overseas clients who are not present in Pakistan to verify every single detail.


Information is extremely valuable when making decisions about the sale and purchase of a property. Incomplete information or non-disclosure of facts is the main cause of fraud and mistrust in the real estate sector. Gaining access to credible information is a challenge in Pakistan as land records are not digitised ae, easily manipulated. That means that bringing in f secure and transparent digital land record managemensystem t will positively impact buyers, sellers, and investors of real estate.


Another major concern and challenge for the general public is contract management and land ownership acquisition. Contracts are often legally worded and poorly understood by anyone unfamiliar with legal terms. There are also many clauses included that waive off liability from real estate developers. Moreover, contracts take a very long time to prepare and have to be rechecked multiple times before they can be signed by all agreeing parties. This makes the process of sale and purchases a very time consuming and cumbersome task.


Lastly, a lack of transparency causes distrust amongst buyers and sellers. There is not much anyone can do about the fact that while making investments, people have to compromise on their right to complete and accurate information. In a majority of cases, the general public is unaware of the status of developing projects and their approvals from government entities. People are also kept in the dark when it comes to project details and has to rely on the reputation of the developer for making decisions about investing in new projects. Lack of transparency also fuels speculation in the market and drives the cost of land to unimaginably high rates (Puri, 2016).


How Blockchain will Impact the Real Estate Sector of Pakistan

Blockchain technology is no longer an area of fiction. Rather, major companies like IBM, Deloitte, KPMG, and others investing a lot of time and effort into materialising it. Sweden has been experimenting with blockchain technology since 2016 for managing its land records. The benefits of a      secure, electronic, and self-governing system cannot be understated in the world of real estate. Pakistan stands to gain a lot by implementing blockchain technologies in maintaining land records and transaction details of real estate.

Another area of impact will be in contract formation and execution. Smart contracts are contracts that do not require human intervention and are based on algorithms that automatically enter details of properties and agreeing parties to a contract. The process is based on multiple steps, but no progress can be made without completing the preceding step’s requirements. This ensures that nothing is missed while making a contract and accurate details are mentioned with no chance of data manipulation. Similarly, escrow accounts are used in real estate to hold payments against the delivery of development projects. The process can also shift to the blockchain via the smart contract application.

Fractional ownership is another interesting potential impact of blockchain technology. Wealth in Pakistani society is concentrated in the hands of a few, and most people cannot invest in real estate based on their savings alone. If properties are divided into smaller parts and sold, then a greater number of people will be able to afford them. That, in return, will also boost the sector’s growth as previously untapped market potential will be realised. The whole idea can easily be implemented using blockchain technology, which otherwise would become a very arduous task (Liebkind, 2020).

Blockchain systems provide a smooth and seamless transaction experience. As intermediaries are not required for a transaction to take place, the cost of selling and purchasing land will be significantly reduced. With blockchain, information on land titles and registration can also be managed resourcefully as historical data can also be linked to every new future transaction for a more detailed record. Each property can then be assigned a unique blockchain ID that is connected to all its specific characteristics. Among other things, this would make property appraisals easier and quicker. Therefore, the impact of blockchain on the real estate of Pakistan will largely remain positive and provide for greater transparency and investor confidence, ultimately leading to massive growth in the sector (Tmd. Studio Ltd., 2017).



As Pakistan continues to see growth in its real estate sector, challenges related to land title, registration, access to information, contracts, and transparency are also being highlighted. Blockchain technologies have been implemented in different capacities all around the world. As the process ensures the secure management of land records and efficient sale and purchase of property, Pakistan should immediately look towards bringing future innovation in blockchain technology.


Key Takeaways

Buying and selling of property have its challenges in Pakistan, ranging from incomplete information to problems in land acquisition, transparency, and fraud schemes.

Blockchain technology is based on a secure and decentralised ledger system that can be used for managing transactions, property details, and customer profiles.

The process of buying and selling property involves several steps, and blockchain can be used to track and authenticate every step of the process.

Incomplete information or non-disclosure of facts is the main cause of fraud and mistrust in the real estate sector. Gaining access to credible information is a challenge in Pakistan as land records are not digitised ae, easily manipulated.

Bringing in a system of secure and transparent digital land record management will positively impact buyers, sellers, and investors of real estate.

Major companies in the world like IBM, Deloitte, KPMG, and others are investing a lot of time and effort into materialising it. Sweden has been experimenting with blockchain technology since 2016 for managing its land records.


12 Most Amazing Handicrafts of Pakistan

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Handicrafts are products that are made and embellished with skilled hands without any help from machines or tools. The skill that is required for each craft depicts its traditional, geographical, and regional value.  

Handicrafts are the rudiments that demonstrate regional and cultural identities. Pakistani handicrafts have been in the picture for 5000 years. Exporting handicrafts have also marked cultural significance and dignity around the world. Handicrafts of Pakistan come under the umbrella of luxury items for interior home décor and fashion as well.  

Roughly 80% of the handicrafts are made in Sindh, while Punjab makes it the second-largest hub of making handicrafts in Pakistan. Pakistan is specifically known for the blue pottery ceramic items; Multan is the main tunnel for these makings.

Pakistan is an old civilization with a rich history encompassing Indus dolphins, the incense of Sufi shrine, spices, gems and so much more that one needs to experience to have its true beauty and complexity.  Nothing is subtle here, every corner of the country reaps with intensity. From home architecture to flavour, design, and fashion. There are many different worlds contained within the geographical boundaries of Pakistan, and with wood, metal, marble, clothes, clay being the canvas, this article will talk about what this part of the world is offering.

List of Famous Handicrafts of Pakistan

  1. Ceramics and Pottery
  2. Brass and Copper
  3. Wood Carving
  4. Marble Carvings
  5. Khussa
  6. Ajrak
  7. Blue Pottery
  8. Camel Lamps
  9. Gems
  10. Rilli
  11. Pashmina
  12. Carpets

Ceramics and Pottery

The roots of ceramic and pottery come from Gandhara civilization. According to facts, even the ruins of Gandhara have yielded toys made with clay. This tradition has been staying alive since then from the outskirts of Punjab and Sindh. In these provinces, you can casually find artisans creating and painting ceramic pots with Niqashi or Kashi Kari.

handicrafts of pakistan

Brass and Copper 

The work of brass and copper is extremely intricate and the history of these come from the northern land of Pakistan, Swat, and old bazaars of Peshawar to be specific. Ever since the Mughals invaded, they were amazed by the skill of local artisans. If you happen to cross the making of these handicrafts you will be stunned with the creation and tedious craftsmanship. 

list of handicrafts of pakistan

Wood Carving 

It goes without saying that wood carving has been inspired by Mughal architecture. Wood carving is not new to anyone, almost every home of Pakistan can be seen with furniture or décor item that is made of wood carving. The origin of these handicrafts is from small cities such as Chiniot and Sargodha. 

famous handicrafts of pakistan

Marble Carvings 

Marble carvings are done on the northern side of Pakistan. Craftsmen work with porcelain marble pieces to create decorative items, utensils, and art that one cannot resist buying.


Khussa is like a collage of Pakistani culture that is made from leather and embroidered with traditional motifs and mirrors to create utterly unique footwear.

famous handicrafts of pakistan


Ajrak came into existence centuries ago at the banks of Sindh where it was dyed in indigo colors at the time of Mohenjodaro. It shows the entire Indus civilization encoded within its motifs. The designs of the block prints have been the same without any change since its beginning. The design has been taken from the walls of Chaukhandi and from the people of Indus civilization. 

Ajrak handicraft of pakistan

Blue Pottery

Blue pottery is a must if one is talking about famous handicrafts of Pakistan. Blue pottery is inspired by the Persian and Turkish calligraphy and miniatures and made in Multan and Sindh. 

handicraft of pakistan

Camel Lamps 

Camel lamps are a beautiful creation of the deserts of Cholistan and Multan. They are made from camel skin and then painted over creating an aesthetic art piece that is not found anywhere else. The porous skin of Camel lights up your room creating a shadow of a desert night.


Gems are a staple if you are fond of jewelry. It is excavated from the Himalayan mountains. Emeralds, rubies, and turquoise are some of the most popular among women.

amazing handicrafts of pakistan


Rilli was born out of poverty and improvised by nomadic women who could not afford new clothes. These patchwork quilts are a testament to their resilience and skill in times of need. They gave these patchwork quilts to each other as a gift and some were kept for over decades as a memento to be given to daughters.


It takes an entire village of Kashmiri women to create one pashmina. It is a shawl made of pure lamb wool with intricate handwork designs patched. The flowers motifs illustrate the beauty of autumn and spring flower hues. A pure pashmina shawl is not only hard to find but is also costly.
The northern side is most called for the Pashmina shawl. Handwoven and an eye-catcher for everyone. 

handicraft in pakistan


Carpets originate from the mountains of Balochistan and the glacial hills of Hunza. Transforming threads into a full carpet required not only time but extensive labor and sweat. It is dedicated as a communal craft sustaining the entire village. Some carpets are weaved for weeks and months. Some have Persian art and Ottoman miniature paintings translated onto silk rugs. 


Handicrafts of Multan

Multan is famous for its clay pottery, knotted carpets, blue pottery, Ajrak, embroidery, Khussa, camel skin, and bone handicrafts. Some of the handicrafts of Lahore and Karachi can be found in Multan too. Their most renowned art is camel skin lamps. 

Handicrafts of Karachi

The handicrafts of Karachi are seen everywhere in the country. Rilli, ajrak, sindhi topi, blue pottery and chunri are the famous handicrafts of Karachi. Rillis are not only made in Sindh but in the adjoining cities as well. They are commonly used as a floor covering, storage bags, dowry and as a cover for baby cots. 

Handicrafts of Punjab

As mentioned above, khussa is where Punjab is. Khussa has been in fashion for years. It’s a trend that never goes out of fashion. Wearing handmade or hand stitched Khussa at a wedding or traditional event has been in the game since forever. Khussas are made in Lahore in different fabrics like velvet, jamawaar, silk, and cotton. Khussa and brass are the famous handicrafts of Lahore. Other famous handicrafts of Punjab include chunri, gotta, clay pottery and woodwork. 

The rich and diverse handicrafts of Pakistan reflect its culture, legacy, people’s ethnicity, and generational glimpse that has been inherited and treasured. The skill and craftsmanship (color, shape, style) that goes into each one of these is what makes it unique and special. These timeless Pakistani handicrafts have been surviving through ages and different eras of time. One can find these beautiful handicrafts in every home of Pakistan. 

Each city brings its own magic with the color, style, design, and motif that symbolizes its culture, history and handicraft built from people’s indigenous hands.

Pakistani handicrafts are like precious stones that need to be preserved for their ethnic beauty and flourishing texture. Time has been a testimony to the evolution of these designs as the civilization kept growing, leaving the world in awe.

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List of Famous and Traditional Festivals in Pakistan

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A lot of festivals are celebrated in Pakistan annually, each has its own importance, features, and joy. Being an integral part of society, they are welcomed with music, dance, fireworks, and food. Festivals celebrated in Pakistan include both Islamic and cultural. 

Most Celebrated Festivals of Pakistan

Let us walk through a list of some of the famous and traditional festivals of Pakistan. 

  1. Shab-e-Barat
  2. Mela Chiraghan
  3. Eid-ul-Azha
  4. Jashan-e-Nowruz
  5. Silk Route Festival
  6. Shandur Polo Festival
  7. Lok Virsa Folk Festival
  8. Independence Day


An optional holiday that is celebrated on the 14th and 15th night of the Islamic month of Shabaan. It is regarded as the night on which fate and fortune are decided. A night to repent and ask for forgiveness. South Asian sweet called ‘halwa’ is distributed among families and neighbours. Donations are also given to the poor.

Mela Chiraghan

Known as the ‘festival of lights’, Mela Chiraghan is a 3-day festival celebrated to commemorate the death anniversary of Shah Hussain who was a Sufi saint and poet that lived in the 16th century in the city of Lahore. The shrine is named Madho Lal Hussain, Madho was a devoted Hindu follower of his work. 

The festival takes place in the Baghbanpura area of Lahore. The days are full of zeal, rejoiced with a Sufi meditative dance and live music. This traditional festival used to be the oldest celebration in the entire subcontinent and the largest in Punjab but currently stands at second number. It used to be celebrated at the Shalimar Gardens of Lahore but was relocated to Hussain’s shrine in 1958.


Eid ul Azha is celebrated on the 10th day of the Zil Hajj which is the 12th Islamic month. Eid-ul-Azha is a religious holiday. This holy day known as the second Eid is celebrated in the memory of the sacrifice made by the prophet Ibrahim, wherein he offered the life of his son Prophet Ismail to fulfil the decree of Allah. 

On this day Muslims around the world sacrifice a sheep, goat, cow or camel in the name of Allah, the same way it was done by the prophet. The meat of the sacrificed animal is then divided into three parts and distributed among family members, friends and most importantly the poor. With the ongoing pandemic, it is very difficult to perform sacrifices this Eid ul Adha but thanks to the internet and technology, there are many online qurbani websites that will perform Qurbani for you.


(March 21st – 23rd) this festival is like Nowruz of Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. In Chitral, Gilgit, and Baltistan, Nowruz is celebrated as a socio-religious festival from 21st to 23rd March. It is celebrated with much fervor in Balochistan and in almost all of Pakistan’s major urban centers. The celebration lasts for weeks. 

In Baltistan, the main features of Nowruz include distributing colored eggs to friends and family and polo matches. In Balochistan, the festival is, however, marked with outdoor feasts, traditional musical evenings, polo games and the traditional jumping over a fire to wash away sins to usher in a fresh start of life. The origin of this festival goes back to a pre-Islamic era when Pakistan was part of the Achaemenes and Sassanid Persian empires. Children and women used to dress up in new clothes to greet each other. Special congregations were held in different towns where special prayers were offered for the prosperity of the country. In Hunza district, the Nawroz festival is started off with agriculture activities, as people begin to plough their fields.

Silk Route Festival

Silk route festival is an exceptional and amazing combination of adventure, history, natural raw beauty, culture, and crafts – all creating a unique experience that should not be missed. 

A blend of natural environs, the landscape along with a privileged location in the highest mountains of the world. A festival that embodies breathtaking snow peaks, sparkling glaciers, lush green valleys of fruits and an unexplored heritage. 

Silk Route is an international festival that is observed in multiple countries with different time and seasons. In Gilgit-Baltistan, it is commonly observed in the month of September or October. This festival is known as one of the most inspiring festivals of the world owing to the following features that it offers. 

Highlights of the festival feature

  • Artisans-at-work: Artisans from remote northern areas work together in beautifully designed and documented pavilions.
  • Folkloric songs & dance ensembles. 
  • Folk music group.
  • Exotic craft bazaar. 
  • Polo matches and other sports events.
  • Camping village and open-air restaurants
  • Ethnic fashion show. 
  • Community festivals at the district level.

Shandur Polo Festival 

Shandur Polo festival (3700 meters) is celebrated at the world’s highest polo ground in Babusar every year by polo teams of Gilgit-Baltistan. The ground is lush, green and a great tourist spot for camping during the summer season in the month of July. The polo festival is held in August each year. The teams compete with each other and the festival is enjoyed by thousands of people from all over Pakistan. The festival is organized by the Tourism Department of Gilgit-Baltistan. 

The festival is an amazing sports festival that is celebrated by the tribes of Gilgit and Chitral, providing a wholesome cultural experience. The tribes first meet at the Shandur Pass in the glorious Hindukush mountain range. The ground is adjacent to Shandur lake.

Lok Virsa Folk Festival 

Lok Virsa festival is the largest cultural activity in Pakistan held in October every year. For the last two decades, this festival has attracted international artisans and performers from more than 20 countries around the world to perform and participate. It has become a pride for artisans and performers. The provinces of Azad Jammu & Kashmir put up beautifully decorated pavilions for the visitors to enjoy the traditionally rich culture of Pakistan in the federal capital of Pakistan. The festival lasts for 10 days in Lok Virsa, displaying multi-ethnic work of artisans working under the banner of Heritage Museum. The Research & Media Centre of Lok Virsa arranges groups of dancers, music concerts from all parts of Pakistan. Documentation of the festival is carried out by Lok Virsa’s researchers, who interview all the artisans and artists that have participated. Culture departments of all the provinces along with the diplomatic community are invited to set up pavilions presenting their prestigious folk culture. As per tradition, the festival opens with a chadarposhi and dastarbandi ceremony, which is a way of proclaiming Lok Virsa’s commitment to the high stature that craftspeople and folk artists have in the cultural mainstream.

Independence Day

The most awaited day to experience Pakistan’s peoples’ pride and excitement. The joy of Independence Day can be seen in full bloom, especially in the cities. People decorate their homes, attend parades, join other parades with their own vehicles, and of course: wear lots of green!

As the days and weeks leading up to the event, shops and brands start selling all kinds of items and clothes dazzling with green and white color. Cities and towns can be seen all lit up with lights and flags. It is truly a sight to behold. 

Festivals hold great importance in Pakistan. They are dependent on social heritage, which makes up for our customs, traditions, moral values, attitudes, folklore, beliefs, and ideals. In terms of social and economic angle, they attract a lot of tourists from all over the world. Festivals give us a break from our chaotic and stressful routine, bringing in positivity and communal gathering that is much needed for societal health. No matter where you go in the world, when it comes to festivals, they have a lot to offer, culture, arts, holidays, togetherness, and love.

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Comprehensive plan in place to promote FinTech environment in Pakistan: Chairman SECP

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ISLAMABAD: The Security and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) Chairman, Aamir Khan on Tuesday said that the institution has developed a comprehensive and coherent policy for the promotion of the FinTech environment. 

Speaking at the webinar on “Second Cohort of SECP’s Regulatory Sandbox”,  Aamir Khan said that the regulatory authority would provide a controlled environment to conduct experimental tests in order to develop products, controls and regulatory oversight.  The webinar was organised by SECP. 

As per Aamir Khan,  FinTech has immense potential for growth and expansion in the financial sector. However, the new developments would also pose challenges for regulators and supervisors. 

He further highlighted the mechanism of the SECP’s Regulatory Sandbox and gave details regarding the application procedure, eligibility criteria and the evaluation process. 


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10 marla house construction cost GREY with FINISHING


In previous costing videos and detailed articles we told our viewers in detail about house construction costs for grey structure and finishing separately. We had many queries about combined construction cost of house. In this video and article we will tell our viewers briefly without calculating quantities about overall 10 marla house construction cost. This cost article is just for the guidance of laymen who are interested in getting their house constructed on their own and as told before we do not recommend a complete GREY + FINISH turnkey contract if you are intending to get your house built by a construction company.

This article and video is dedicated for a 10 marla plot only. It is to be noted here that this article and video will briefly explain about complete 10 marla house construction cost. For detailed calculations you will have to refer to our previous costing videos in which we have explained grey structure and finishing cost separately with quantities.

In this combined construction cost video for GREY + FINISH for a 10 marla house, grey structure considered is of the PREMIUM PLUS grade quality without any compromise as we have always recommended that even if your are on a tighter budget, there should be no compromise in grey structure quality. For finishing we have explained cost for three different grades as following:

  1. Economical finish (B grade)
  2. Standard finish (A grade)
  3. Premium finish (A+ grade)

Sample project

Project considered for this costing is a 10 marla house that has following specifications:

  • Ground floor
  • First floor
  • 250 sqft rooftop servant quarter
  • Total 3400 sqft covered area
  • Normal depth 5-6ft for foundations from NSL till FFL



• Possible ±5% Variation is possible in cost shown in video

• Rates applicable on Brick structures only

• Add Rs 150-200 for frame structure construction

• Skills required to achieve this cost:

o Past experience

o Quality & honest labor o Labor management skills

o Quality, timely & cost effective material procurement

• Factors such as construction inexperience, unusual covered areas, frequent wear & tears, fraudulent labor etc can effect this cost figure

• Hire professional company which will add a figure of 250 Rs/sq.ft minimum as margin.

• Basement grey structure will cost minimum 2029 Rs/sq.ft